Kutheni umgquba weenkukhu kufuneka uboleke kakuhle phambi kokuwusebenzisa?

Okokuqala, umgquba wenkukhu eluhlaza awulingani nesichumiso sezinto eziphilayo. Isichumiso sendalo sibhekisa kwindiza, ikeyiki, umgquba wemfuyo, intsalela yamakhowa kunye nezinye izinto ezingafunekiyo ngokubola, ukubila kunye nokulungiswa kwenzelwa isichumiso. Umgquba wezilwanyana yenye yezinto ezisetyenziswayo kwimveliso yezichumiso.

Nokuba umgquba wenkuku omanzi okanye owomileyo awuvundiswanga, iyakukhokelela ngokulula ekutshatyalalisweni kwemifuno ye greenhouse, iigadi zeziqhamo kunye nezinye izityalo eziyimali, oko kubangele ilahleko enkulu kwezoqoqosho kumafama. Masiqale ngokujonga umngcipheko womgquba wenkuku ekrwada, kwaye kutheni abantu becinga ukuba umgquba wenkuku eluhlaza usebenza ngakumbi kunomnye umgquba wezilwanyana? Kwaye ungayisebenzisa njani ngokufanelekileyo umgquba wenkukhu ngokuchanekileyo nangempumelelo?

Iintlekele ezisibhozo ezibangelwa lula kukusetyenziswa komgquba wenkuku kwizindlu zokugcina izityalo nakwigadi yeziqhamo:

1. Tshisa iingcambu, utshise izithole kwaye ubulale izityalo

Emva kokusebenzisa umgquba wenkuku ongenagwele, ukuba isandla sakho sifakiwe emhlabeni, iqondo lobushushu lomhlaba liya kuba phezulu kakhulu. Kwiimeko ezimandundu, ukusweleka kweflake okanye isigqubuthelo esipheleleyo kungalibazisa ukulima kwaye kukhokelele kwilahleko yeendleko zabasebenzi kunye notyalo mali lwembewu.

Ngokukodwa, ukusetyenziswa komgquba wenkukhu ebusika nasentwasahlobo kunengozi enkulu yokhuselo, kuba ngeli xesha, iqondo lobushushu ngaphakathi kwendlu ephezulu kakhulu, kwaye ukubila komgquba wenkukhu kuya kuthumela ubushushu obuninzi, okukhokelela kwingcambu . Umgquba wenkukhu wawusetyenziswa kwigadi yeziqhamo ebusika nasentwasahlobo, kanye kwisithuba seengcambu zokulala. Nje ukuba ingcambu itshiswe, iya kuchaphazela ukuqokelelwa kwezondlo kunye neentyatyambo kunye neziqhamo kunyaka ozayo.

2. Ukunyibilikiswa komhlaba, kunciphisa ukuveliswa kweziqhamo

Ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo komgquba wenkuku kushiye isixa esikhulu se-sodium chloride emhlabeni, ngomyinge wama-30 ukuya kwiikhilogram zetyuwa nge-6 square metres yomgquba wenkukhu, kunye neekhilogram ezili-10 zetyuwa kwihektare nganye kuthintele kakhulu ukungena komhlaba nomsebenzi . Isichumisi se-phosphate esomeleleyo, isichumisi se-potash, i-calcium, i-magnesium, i-zinc, i-iron, i-boron, i-manganese kunye nezinye izinto ezibalulekileyo, ezikhokelela ekukhuleni okungaqhelekanga kwezityalo, iintyatyambo ezinqabileyo kunye nokuveliswa kweziqhamo, kuthintela kakhulu ukuphuculwa kwesivuno kunye nomgangatho.

Ngenxa yoko, izinga lokusetyenziswa kwesichumiso lehle unyaka nonyaka kunye neendleko zokufaka zonyuka nge-50-100%

3. Ukuqinisa umhlaba kunye nokwenza izifo ezahlukeneyo zerhizosphere kunye nezifo zentsholongwane

Kuba i-pH yemanyolo yenkukhu imalunga ne-4, ine-asidi kakhulu kwaye iyawucola umhlaba, nto leyo ikhokelela kwingozi yemichiza kunye nomonakalo omkhulu kwisiseko se-stem kunye nezicubu zeengcambu, ukubonelela ngenani elikhulu leentsholongwane ezithwalwa ngumgquba wenkukhu, isifo esithwalwa ngumhlaba. -ithwala iibhaktheriya, iintsholongwane kwaye inika ithuba lokungena kunye nosulelo, nje ukuba ukufuma kunye neqondo lobushushu lifikelele kwesi sifo.

Ukusetyenziswa komgquba wenkukhu ongagqibelelanga, kulula ukubangela ukubuna kwesityalo, tyheli kubune, i-atrophy iyeke ukukhula, akukho ziintyatyambo kunye neziqhamo, kwanokufa; Isifo sentsholongwane, isifo esingubhubhane, ukubola kwesiqu, ukubola kweengcambu kunye nokubola kwebacteria zezona zilandelelana ngokucacileyo zokusetyenziswa komgquba wenkukhu.

4.Iqhina leqhina le-nematode infestation

Umgquba wenkuku yindawo yeminquba kunye nendawo yokuzalela ii-root-knot nematodes. Inani lamaqanda eengcambu ze-root-knot ali-100 kwi-1000 yeegram. Amaqanda kumgquba wenkukhu kulula ukuba aqandusele kwaye andise ngamashumi amawaka ngobusuku obunye.

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IiNematode zibuthathaka kakhulu kwiiarhente zemichiza, kwaye zihamba ngokukhawuleza ziye kubunzulu be-50 cm ukuya kwi-1.5 m, nto leyo ibenza nzima ukuphilisa. I-Root-knot nematode yenye yeengozi ezibulalayo ngakumbi kwiishedi ezindala ngaphezulu kweminyaka emi-3 ubudala.

5. Yiza nee-antibiotics, ezichaphazela ukhuseleko lweemveliso zezolimo

Ukutya kwenkukhu kuqulethe iihomoni ezininzi, kwaye kukongeza ii-antibiotics ukunqanda izifo, ezi ziya kuqhutywa emhlabeni ngomgquba wenkukhu, ezichaphazela ukhuseleko lweemveliso zezolimo

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6. Velisa iigesi eziyingozi, ezichaphazela ukukhula kwezityalo, zibulale izithole

Umgquba wenkukhu kwinkqubo yokubola ukuvelisa i-methane, i-ammonia gas kunye nezinye iigesi eziyingozi, ukuze umhlaba kunye nezityalo zivelise ukonakala kwe-asidi kunye nomonakalo weengcambu, eyona nto imbi kakhulu kukuveliswa kwegesi ye-ethylene yokuthintela ukukhula kwengcambu, esona sizathu siphambili ukutshisa iingcambu.

7. Ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwendle yenkukhu, kukhokelela ekuswelekeni kweoksijini kwinkqubo yengcambu

Ukusetyenziswa rhoqo komgquba wenkuku kukhokelela ekuswelekeni kweoksijini kwinkqubo yengcambu kunye nokukhula kakubi. Xa umgquba weenkukhu ufakwa emhlabeni, utya ioksijini emhlabeni ngexesha lenkqubo yokubola, wenze umhlaba okwethutyana kwimeko yehypoxia, eya kuthi ithintele ukukhula kwezityalo.

8. Isinyithi esinzima singaphezulu komgangatho

Umgquba weenkuku unezixa ezikhulu zezinyithi ezinzima ezifana nobhedu, imekyuri, i-chromium, icadmium, ilothe kunye ne-arsenic, kunye nentsalela ezininzi zehomoni, ezibangela isinyithi esinzima kakhulu kwiimveliso zezolimo, zingcolisa amanzi angaphantsi komhlaba kunye nomhlaba, zithathe ixesha elide kwizinto eziphilayo into yokutshintsha ibe yi-humus, kwaye ibangele ilahleko enkulu yezondlo.

Kutheni le nto umhlaba uchuma ubonakala uphakame ngakumbi ngokufaka umgquba wenkukhu?

Kungenxa yokuba amathumbu enkukhu ethe tye, ilindle kunye nomchamo ngokudibeneyo, ngoko ke into ephilayo equlethwe kumgquba wenkukhu, ngaphezulu kwe-60% yezinto eziphilayo zikwimo ye-uric acid, ukubola kwe-uric acid kunika izinto ezininzi ze-nitrogen, I-500 kg yomgquba wenkukhu ulingana ne-76.5 kg ye-urea, umphezulu ujongeka ngathi izityalo zikhula ngokwendalo zomelele. Ukuba olu hlobo lweemeko lwenzeka kuhlobo lwebhatyi okanye kwimidiliya yeziqhamo, inokuvelisa isifo somzimba esibi.

Oku ikakhulu kubangelwa kukuchasana phakathi kwe-nitrogen kunye nezinto ezilandelwayo kunye ne-urea egqithisileyo, eya kuthi ibangele ukufunxwa kwezinto eziphakathi kunye nokulandela umkhondo kuthintelwe, kukhokelele kumagqabi atyheli, ukubola kwembumba, ukuqhekeka kweziqhamo kunye nesifo seenyawo zenkukhu.

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Wakhe wadibana nemeko yokutshiswa kwezithole okanye ukubola kweengcambu kwiigadi zakho okanye kwiigadi zemifuno?

Isichumisi sifakwa kakhulu, kodwa isivuno kunye nomgangatho asinakuphuculwa. Ngaba kukho naziphi na iimeko ezimbi? njengokufa kwesiqingatha sobude, ukuqina komhlaba, iindiza ezinzima, njl. umgquba weenkukhu kufuneka uhambe ngokubila kunye nonyango olungenabungozi ngaphambi kokuba ufakwe emhlabeni!

Ukusetyenziswa okufanelekileyo kunye nokusebenza komgquba wenkukhu

Umgquba wenkukhu yinto ekrwada yesichumiso, equle malunga ne-1.63% ye-nitrogen emsulwa, malunga ne-1.54% ye-P2O5 kunye ne-0.085% ye-potassium. Ingacutshungulwa ichume isichumiso ngezixhobo zemveliso zezichumiso zomgquba. Emva kwenkqubo yokubila, izinambuzane eziyingozi kunye nembewu yokhula ziya kususwa ngokukhula kunye nokuhla kweqondo lobushushu. Umgca wemveliso yenkuku yenkukhu ngokusisiseko ibandakanya ukucola

Itshathi yokuhamba kwenkqubo yemveliso yezichumisi

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Inkqubo yokuhamba kwetshathi yezichumiso eziphilayo kunye nemveliso yonyaka yeetoni ezingama-30,000

 

Ulwakhiwo olusisiseko lomgca wemveliso yezichumiso eziphilayo

1. Amatanki amane okubila aya kwakhiwa kwindawo ekrwada, nganye ibeyi-40m ubude, i-3m ububanzi kunye ne-1.2m dee-p, kunye nommandla opheleleyo we-700 square metres;

2. Indawo yemathiriyeli eluhlaza iya kulungisa i-320m kaloliwe okhanyayo;

3. Indawo yemveliso igubungela indawo ye-1400 yeemitha zesikwere;

4. Kufuneka abasebenzi aba-3 kwimveliso yempahla ekrwada, kwaye kufuneka abasebenzi abangama-20 kwindawo yemveliso;

5. Indawo yemathiriyeli eluhlaza kufuneka ithenge itraki yeeteksi zetoni ezintathu.

 

Esona sixhobo siphambili somgangatho wokuvelisa umgquba wenkukhu:

1. Inqanaba lokuqala izixhobo zokuvumba yomgquba wenkukhu: umatshini wokujika umjelo we-groove, ukukhasa Umatshini wokujika umquba, umatshini wokujika umatshini ojikelezayo ojikelezayo, umatshini weetafile zomatshini wokujika umjelo

2. Izixhobo zokutyhoboza: isityumzi izinto semi-emanzi, isityumzi chain, isityumzi nkqo

3. Ukuxuba izixhobo: Umxhubi oxwesileyo, umxube wediski

4. Izixhobo zovavanyo zibandakanya Umatshini wokujonga ojikelezayo kunye ne-screening machine

5.Izixhobo ze-Granulator: i-granulator ephazamisayo, i-disc granulator, extrusion granulator, Ijikelezisa igubu elijikelezayo kunye nomatshini ojikelezayo

6. Izixhobo zokomisa: Rotary igubu isomisi

7.Ukupholisa izixhobo zomatshini: Umatshini wokupholisa ojikelezayo

8.Izixhobo zokuncedisa: ubungakanani bokutya, umgquba wenkukhu, umatshini wokutyabeka, umqokeleli wothuli, umatshini wokupakisha ozenzekelayo

9. Izixhobo zokuhambisa: ibhanti yokuhambisa, ilifti yebhakethi.

 

Inkqubo yoyilo yemveliso yezichumisi ngokubanzi ibandakanya:

1. Itekhnoloji efanelekileyo yokusebenza kweentlobo ezintsonkothileyo kunye nokwanda kweentsholongwane.

Itekhnoloji yokulungiselela izinto ze-2 Inkqubo yokubila yebhayoloji.

3. Obona buchwephesha bobuchwephesha obukhethekileyo obukhethekileyo (indibaniselwano efanelekileyo yefomula yefom inokuyilwa ngokuguquguqukayo ngokomhlaba wasekhaya kunye neempawu zezityalo).

4. Itekhnoloji yolawulo olunengqiqo lokungcoliseka kwesibini (inkunkuma erhasi kunye nevumba).

5. Inkqubo yoyilo kunye netekhnoloji yokuvelisa ye Imveliso yesichumiso.

 

Izinto ezifuna ingqalelo kwimveliso ye manyolo yenkukhu

Ukuphela kwezinto eziluhlaza:

Ukucoceka kwezinto ezingafunekiyo kubaluleke kakhulu kwinkqubo yemveliso yezichumiso eziphilayo. Ngokwamava, ukucoceka kwayo yonke impahla ekrwada kufuneka kuhambisane nolu hlobo lulandelayo: Amanqaku ayi-100-60 ekrwada malunga ne-30-40%, amanqaku angama-60 ukuya kwi-1.00 mm ubukhulu bezinto ezimalunga ne-35%, kwaye malunga ne-25% -30% ububanzi be-1.00-2.00 mm. Nangona kunjalo, kwinkqubo yokuvelisa, ubuninzi bezixhobo zokucoceka okuphezulu zihlala zibangela iingxaki ezinje ngamasuntswana amakhulu kakhulu kunye namasuntswana angaqhelekanga ngenxa ye-viscosity elungileyo.

Ukuvuthwa komgangatho wenkukhu yomgquba

Umgquba wenkukhu kufuneka ubole ngokupheleleyo phambi kokufaka isicelo. Izidleleleli ezikumgquba wenkukhu kunye namaqanda azo, kunye nezinye iintsholongwane ezosulelayo, ziya kwenziwa ngenkqubo yokubola (ukubila). Emva kokubola okupheleleyo, umgquba wenkuku uya kuba sisichumiso esisezantsi esikumgangatho ophezulu.

1. Ukuqola

Kwangelo xesha kunye nezi meko zintathu zilandelayo, unokugweba ngokukuko umgquba wenkuku ubilile.

1. Ngokusisiseko akukho phunga libi; 2. Ihipha emhlophe; 3. Umgquba wenkukhu ukwimeko evulekileyo.

Ixesha lokuvumba lihlala malunga neenyanga ezintathu phantsi kweemeko zendalo, eziza kukhawuleziswa kakhulu ukuba kongezwe iarhente yokubilisa. Kuxhomekeka kubushushu obujikelezileyo, iintsuku ezingama-20 ukuya kwezi-30 ziyafuneka ngokubanzi, kwaye iintsuku ezi-7 ukuya kwezi-10 zinokugqitywa phantsi kweemeko zemveliso yefektri.

2. Ukufuma

Umxholo wamanzi kufuneka uhlengahlengiswe ngaphambi kokuvumba komgquba wenkukhu. Kwinkqubo yokubila izichumisi eziphilayo, ukufaneleka komxholo wamanzi kubaluleke kakhulu. Kuba iarhente ebolayo igcwele ibacteria ephilayo, ukuba yome kakhulu okanye imanzi kakhulu iya kuchaphazela ukubila kweentsholongwane, ngokubanzi kufuneka igcinwe kuma-60 ~ 65%.


Ixesha Post: Jun-18-2021