Umgangatho woLawulo lweZichumiso zeOrganic

Ukulawulwa kwemeko ye imveliso yezichumiso eziphilayo, ekusebenzeni, kukunxibelelana kweempawu zomzimba kunye zebhayoloji kwinkqubo yokwenza umgquba. Kwelinye icala, imeko yolawulo iyanxibelelana kwaye ilungelelaniswe. Kwelinye icala, iifestile ezahlukeneyo zixutywe kunye, ngenxa yokwahluka kwendalo kunye nokuwohloka kwesantya okwahlukileyo.

Ulawulo lokufuma
Ukufuma yimfuneko ebalulekileyo ukuze Ukwenza umgquba. Kwinkqubo yokugalela umgquba, isiqulatho sokufuma sesiqulatho sezinto zokuqala zokugalela umgquba ngama-40% ukuya kuma-70%, neqinisekisa inkqubela egudileyo yomgquba. Owona mxholo womswakama ofanelekileyo ngama-60-70%. Ukufuma okuphezulu kakhulu okanye okuphantsi kakhulu kokuqukethwe okunokuchaphazela umsebenzi we-aerobe ukwenzela ukuba ummiselo wokufuma kufuneka wenziwe ngaphambi kokuvumba. Xa ukufuma kwezinto kungaphantsi kwama-60%, amaqondo obushushu ayenyuka kancinci kwaye iqondo lokonakala lingaphantsi. Xa umxholo wokufuma ungaphezulu kwe-70%, umoya uyathinteleka kwaye ukubila kwe-anaerobic kuyakwenziwa, okungahambelani nenkqubela phambili.

Izifundo zibonise ukuba kunyusa ngokufanelekileyo ukufuma kwemathiriyeli ekrwada kunokukhawulezisa ukukhula komgquba kunye nozinzo. Ukufuma kufuneka kugcinwe kuma-50-60% kwisigaba sokuqala somgquba ze kugcinwe kuma-40% ukuya kuma-50%. Ukufuma kufuneka kulawulwe ngaphantsi kwe 30% emva kokugalela umgquba. Ukuba ukufuma kuphezulu, kufanele ukuba kome kubushushu be-80 ℃.

Ulawulo lobushushu.

Sisiphumo somsebenzi we-microbial, esimisela unxibelelwano lwezixhobo. Xa ubushushu bokuqala bomgquba buyi-30 ~ 50 ℃, ii-microorganisms ze-thermophilic zinokuthotywa isixa esikhulu sezinto eziphilayo kwaye zibole iselulosi ngokukhawuleza ngexesha elifutshane, ngaloo ndlela kukhuthaza ukunyuka kobushushu bomfumba. Iqondo lobushushu elilelona liyi-55 ~ 60 ℃. Ubushushu obuphezulu yimeko eyimfuneko yokubulala iintsholongwane, amaqanda ezinambuzane, imbewu yokhula kunye nezinye izinto eziyityhefu eziyingozi. Ku-55 ℃, 65 ℃ no-70 temperatures amaqondo obushushu aphezulu ngeeyure ezimbalwa kunokubulala izinto eziyingozi. Ihlala ithatha iiveki ezimbini ukuya kwezintathu kumaqondo obushushu aqhelekileyo.

Sichaze ukuba ukufuma yinto echaphazela ubushushu bomgquba. Ukufuma okugqithileyo kuya kwehlisa iqondo lobushushu lomgquba, kwaye ukuhlengahlengisa ukufuma kuluncedo ekunyuseni iqondo lobushushu kwinqanaba elilandelayo lokuvumba. Iqondo lobushushu linokwehliswa ngokongeza ukufuma okungaphezulu.

Ukuguqula imfumba yenye indlela yokulawula ubushushu. Ngokuguqula ngaphezulu inqwaba, ubushushu bemfumba yezinto bunokulawulwa ngokufanelekileyo, kwaye umphunga wamanzi kunye nenqanaba lokuhamba komoya kunokukhawuleziswa. Inkqubo ye-Umatshini wokujika umquba yindlela esebenzayo yokufumana ukubila kwexesha elifutshane. Inempawu zomsebenzi olula, ixabiso elifikelelekayo kunye nokusebenza ngokugqwesileyo. Inkqubo cUmatshini wokujika ompost uyakwazi ukulawula ngokufanelekileyo ubushushu kunye nexesha lokuvumba.

Ulawulo lomyinge we-C / N.

Umlinganiselo we-C / N ochanekileyo unokukhuthaza ukuvutshelwa okugudileyo. Ukuba umlinganiselo we-C / N uphezulu kakhulu, ngenxa yokunqongophala kwe-nitrogen kunye nokusikelwa umda kwimeko-bume ekhulayo, izinga lokuthotywa kwezinto eziphilayo ziyacotha, zisenza umjikelo womgquba ube mde. Ukuba umlinganiselo we-C / N uphantsi kakhulu, ikhabhoni inokusetyenziswa ngokupheleleyo, kwaye i-nitrogen egqithisileyo inokulahleka njenge-ammonia. Ayichaphazeli okusingqongileyo kuphela, kodwa inciphisa nokusebenza kwesichumiso se-nitrogen. I-Microorganisms zenza i-microbial protoplasm ngexesha lokuvumba kwezinto eziphilayo. Iprotoplasm iqulethe i-50% yekhabhoni, i-5% ye-nitrogen kunye ne-0.25% ye-phosphoric acid. Abaphandi bacebisa ukuba i-C / N ratio efanelekileyo yi-20-30%.

Umlinganiselo we-C / N we-organic compost unokuhlengahlengiswa ngokongeza i-C ephezulu okanye izinto eziphezulu ze-N. Ezinye izinto, ezinjengomququ, ukhula, amasebe kunye namagqabi, ziqulathe ifayibha, i-lignin kunye ne-pectin. Ngenxa yomxholo wayo wekhabhoni / wenitrogen, inokusetyenziswa njengesongezo sekhabhoni. Umgquba wemfuyo kunye neenkukhu uphezulu kwi-nitrogen kwaye ungasetyenziselwa ukongeza initrogen. Umzekelo, inqanaba lokusetyenziswa kwe-ammonia nitrogen kumgquba wehagu ukuya kwi-microorganisms yi-80%, enokuthi ikhuthaze ngokufanelekileyo ukukhula kunye nokuzala kwakhona kwamagciwane kunye nokukhawulezisa umgquba.

Inkqubo ye- umatshini omtsha we-organic granulation lilungele eli nqanaba. Izongezo zinokongezwa kwiimfuno ezahlukeneyo xa izinto ezingafunekiyo zingena kumatshini.

Air-kuhamba kunye nokubonelelwa kweoksijini.

Ukwenzela i ukubila komgquba, kubalulekile ukuba nomoya owaneleyo kunye neoksijini. Umsebenzi wayo ophambili kukubonelela ngeoksijini eyimfuneko ekukhuleni kwamagciwane. Elonaqondo lobushushu liphezulu kunye nexesha lokufaka umgquba kunokulawulwa ngokulungisa ubushushu be-pile ngokuhamba komoya omtsha. Ukunyuka komoya kungasusa ukufuma ngelixa kugcinwa ubushushu obulungileyo. Ukungenisa umoya ngokufanelekileyo neoksijini kunganciphisa ukulahleka kwe-nitrogen kunye nokuvelisa ivumba lomgquba.

Ukufuma kwezichumiso zezinto eziphilayo kunefuthe ekuvumeni komoya, kwintsebenzo yentsholongwane kunye nasekusebenziseni ioksijini. Yeyona nto iphambiliumgquba we-aerobic. Kufuneka silawule ukufuma kunye nokungena komoya ngokweempawu zezinto ezibonakalayo ukufezekisa ukulungelelaniswa kokufuma kunye neoksijini. Kwangelo xesha, bobabini banokukhuthaza ukukhula kunye nokuzala kwakhona kwee-microorganisms kunye nokwenza ukuba imeko ibile.

Izifundo zibonise ukuba ukubonisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa kweoksijini kuyanda ngokucacileyo ngaphantsi kwe-60 ℃, ikhula kancinci ngaphezulu kwe-60 ℃, kwaye ikufutshane ne-zero ngaphezulu kwe-70 ℃. Umoya kunye neoksijini kufuneka zilungelelaniswe ngokwamaqondo obushushu ahlukeneyo. 

Ulawulo lwe-PH.

Ixabiso le-pH lichaphazela yonke inkqubo yokuvumba. Kwinqanaba lokuqala lokwenza umgquba, i-pH iya kuchaphazela umsebenzi webhaktiriya. Umzekelo, i-pH = 6.0 yeyona ndawo ibalulekileyo kumgquba wehagu nomgubo wamaplanga. Inqanda ikhabhon diokside kunye nemveliso yobushushu kwi-pH <6.0. Kwi-pH> 6.0, i-carbon dioxide kunye nobushushu bonyuka ngokukhawuleza. Kwinqanaba lobushushu eliphezulu, indibaniselwano ye-pH ephezulu kunye nobushushu obuphezulu bubangela i-ammonia volatilization. Ii-Microbes zibola zibe zi-organic acid ngomgquba, ezithoba i-pH ukuya kwi-5.0. Ii-asidi ze-organic eziguqukayo ziyanyuka njengoko amaqondo obushushu enyuka. Ngexesha elifanayo, ukukhukuliseka kwe-ammonia ngumbumba wezinto eziphilayo kwandisa ixabiso le-pH. Ekugqibeleni, izinza kwinqanaba eliphezulu. Elona zinga liphezulu lomgquba linokufikelelwa kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu womgquba anexabiso le-pH elisusela ku-7.5 ukuya ku-8.5. I-pH ephezulu inokubangela ukuba i-ammonia volatilization igqithise kakhulu, ngoko ke i-pH ingancitshiswa ngokudibanisa i-alum kunye ne-phosphoric acid.

Ngamafutshane, akukho lula ukulawula ukusebenza kakuhle nangokugqibeleleyo ukubila kwezinto eziphilayo. Kwisixhobo esinye, oku kulula. Nangona kunjalo, izinto ezahlukeneyo ziyasebenzisana kwaye zithintela enye nenye. Ukuze uqonde ukufezekiswa ngokupheleleyo kweemeko zokuchumisa, kuyimfuneko ukusebenzisana nenkqubo nganye. Xa iimeko zolawulo zilungile, ukubila kunokuqhubeka ngokutyibilikayo, ngaloo ndlela kubekwa isiseko semvelisoisichumiso ekumgangatho ophezulu.


Ixesha Post: Jun-18-2021