INDLELA yokuvelisa izichumisi zendalo ezivela kwinkunkuma yokutya?

Ukulahlwa kwenkunkuma kuye kwanda njengoko abantu behlabathi bekhulile kwaye nezixeko zikhule ngobukhulu. Izigidi zeetoni zokutya ziphoswa kwinkunkuma kwihlabathi liphela minyaka le. Phantse i-30% yeziqhamo, imifuno, iinkozo, inyama kunye nokutya okuhlanganisiweyo kuyalahlwa minyaka le. Inkunkuma yokutya iye yaba yingxaki enkulu kwindalo esingqongileyo kwilizwe ngalinye. Isixa esikhulu senkunkuma yokutya sibangela ungcoliseko olunzulu, olonakalisa umoya, amanzi, umhlaba kunye nendalo. Kwelinye icala, inkunkuma yokutya ichitha i-anaerobicly ukuvelisa ii-greenhouse gases ezinje nge-methane, icarbon dioxide kunye nokunye ukukhutshwa okuyingozi. Inkunkuma yokutya ivelisa ulingana ne-3.3 yezigidigidi zeetoni zegesi eluhlaza. Inkunkuma yokutya, kwelinye icala, iphoswa kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma ezithatha imihlaba emikhulu, ivelisa i-landfill gas kunye nothuli olujikelezayo. Ukuba i-leachate eveliswe ngexesha lokugcwaliswa komhlaba ayiphathwa kakuhle, iya kubangela ungcoliseko lwesibini, ungcoliseko lomhlaba kunye nongcoliseko lwamanzi omhlaba.

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 Ukutshisa nokulahla inkunkuma kunengxaki enkulu, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwenkunkuma kokutya kuya kuba negalelo kukhuseleko lokusingqongileyo kunye nokwandisa ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezinokuhlaziywa.

Iveliswa njani inkunkuma yokutya kwisichumiso sezinto eziphilayo.

Iziqhamo, imifuno, iimveliso zobisi, iisiriyeli, isonka, ibala lekofu, amaqokobhe amaqanda, inyama kunye namaphepha-ndaba konke kunokwenziwa ngomgquba. Inkunkuma yokutya yinto eyodwa yokwenza isichumisi engowona mthombo uphambili wezinto eziphilayo. Inkunkuma yokutya ibandakanya izinto ezahlukeneyo zemichiza, ezinje ngesitatshi, iselulosi, iiprotini lipids kunye neetyuwa ezingaphiliyo, kunye neN, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, K ezinye izinto ezilandelwayo. Inkunkuma yokutya ine-biodegradable elungileyo, enokufikelela kwi-85%. Inempawu zomxholo ophezulu wezinto eziphilayo, ukufuma okuphezulu kunye nezondlo ezininzi, kwaye inexabiso eliphezulu lokurisayikilisha. Kuba inkunkuma yokutya ineempawu zokufuma okuphezulu kunye nolwakhiwo loxinano oluphantsi komzimba, kubalulekile ukuxuba inkunkuma entsha yokutya kunye ne-arhente yokubhabha, ethi ifunxe ukufuma okugqithileyo kwaye yongeze ubume bokuxuba.

Inkunkuma yokutya inezinga eliphezulu lezinto eziphilayo, kunye neeprotheyini ezingekho phantsi kwe-15% -23%, i-17% -24%, izimbiwa ze-3% -5%, i-Ca ye-54%, i-sodium chloride ye-3% -4%, njl.

Inkqubo yetekhnoloji kunye nezixhobo ezinxulumene noko zokuguqula inkunkuma yokutya iye kwisichumiso sendalo.

Kuyaziwa ukuba inqanaba lokusetyenziswa okuphantsi kwezixhobo zokulahla inkunkuma kubangela ungcoliseko kwindalo esingqongileyo. Okwangoku, amanye amazwe ahambele phambili aseke inkqubo efanelekileyo yokunyanga inkunkuma yokutya. EJamani, umzekelo, inkunkuma yokutya inyangwa ikakhulu ngokwenza umgquba kunye nokuvundisa i-anaerobic, ukuvelisa malunga nezigidi ezi-5 zeetoni zesichumiso sendalo esivela kwinkunkuma yokutya minyaka le. Ngokwenza umgquba wenkunkuma yokutya e-UK, malunga ne-20 yezigidi zeetoni zokukhutshwa kwe-CO2 kunokuncitshiswa unyaka nonyaka. Ukwenza isichumisi kusetyenziswa phantse i-95% yeedolophu zase-US. Ukuvundisa kunokuzisa izibonelelo ezahlukeneyo zokusingqongileyo, kubandakanya ukunciphisa ungcoliseko lwamanzi, kwaye izibonelelo zoqoqosho ziyaqwalaselwa.

♦ Ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni

Amanzi sisixhobo esisisiseko senkunkuma yokutya ebalwa ngama-70% -90%, nesisiseko sokumoshwa kwenkunkuma. Ke ngoko, ukomisa amanzi emzimbeni lelona candelo libalulekileyo kwinkqubo yokuguqula inkunkuma yokutya iye kwisichumiso somgquba.

Isixhobo sangaphambi kokunyanga inkunkuma yokutya linyathelo lokuqala kunyango lwenkunkuma. Ngokukodwa kubandakanya ukuSasazwa kwenkqubo yokuTya ukutya kwiNkqubo yokuZenzekelayo yokuHanjiswa kweSolid-Liquid separatorà kwi-oyile-eyahlula isahlulo samanzi ngaphakathi kwinqanawa. Isiseko sokuhamba singahlulwa ngokwamanyathelo alandelayo:

1. Inkunkuma yokutya kufuneka iphelelwe ngamanzi kuqala ngenxa yokuba inamanzi amaninzi.

2. Ukususwa kwenkunkuma engaphiliyo enkunkumeni yokutya, enjengezinyithi, iinkuni, iiplastiki, iphepha, amalaphu njl.

3. Inkunkuma yokutya iyacwangciswa ize ityiswe ibe sisihluzi sokwahlula ulwelo olomeleleyo lokutyunyuzwa, ukomisa nokudambisa.

4. Iintsalela zokutya okuxineneyo kuyomiswa kwaye kubulawe inzalo kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu ukuze kususwe ukufuma okugqithileyo kunye neentsholongwane ezahlukeneyo zentsholongwane. Ukucoceka nokoma kwenkunkuma yokutya efunekayo ekufezekiseni umgquba, kunye nenkunkuma yokutya inokuthunyelwa kwisikhongozeli esisesitya ngqo ngokusebenzisa ibhanti yokuhambisa.

5. Amanzi asuswe kwinkunkuma yokutya ngumxube weoyile namanzi, ohlulwe sesahluli samanzi seoyile. Ioyile eyahluliweyo icutshungulwa nzulu ukufumana i-biodiesel okanye ioyile yoshishino.

Indawo yonke yokulahla inkunkuma yokutya inezibonelelo zemveliso ephezulu, ukusebenza ngokukhuselekileyo, ixabiso eliphantsi kunye nomjikelo wemveliso omfutshane.

♦ Umgquba

Itanki yokuvumba luhlobo lwetanki evaliweyo ngokupheleleyo kusetyenziswa ubuchwephesha bokubilisa ubuchwephesha be-aerobic, obutshintsha ubuchwephesha besiqhelo bokugcina umgquba. Ubushushu obuphezulu obuvaliweyo kunye nenkqubo yokukhawulezisa umgquba kwitanki ivelisa umgquba wodidi oluphezulu, onokulawulwa ngokuchanekileyo nangokuzinza ngakumbi.

Ukufakwa komgquba ngaphakathi kwinqanawa kufakwe i-insulated, kwaye ulawulo lobushushu yeyona nto iphambili xa kugalelwa umgquba. Ukonakala ngokukhawuleza kwezinto eziphilayo ezinokuthotywa lula kufezekiswa ngokugcina iimeko ezinobushushu obulungileyo kwizinto ezincinci. Ukufumana ubushushu obuphezulu bokungasebenzi kwezinto ezincinci kunye nembewu yokhula kubalulekile. Ukuvumba kukuqalwa ngokuqala kwezinto ezincinci ezenzeka kwinkunkuma yokutya, zichitha izinto zomgquba, zikhuphe izakha mzimba, zonyusa iqondo lobushushu ukuya kwi-60-70 ° C efunekayo ukubulala amagciwane kunye nembewu yokhula, kunye nokudibana imigaqo yokulungisa inkunkuma yendalo. Umgquba osezityeni unelona xesha likhawulezayo ukubola, elinokwenza umgquba kokutya kwiintsuku nje ezi-4. Emva nje kweentsuku ezi-4 ukuya kwezi-7, isichumisi siyakhululwa, singenasongo, sicocekile, kwaye sityebile ngezinto eziphilayo, kwaye sinexabiso elilinganiselweyo lezondlo.

Esi sichumisi singenayo ivumba, somhlaba esiveliswa ngumgquba asigcini nje ngokuzalisa umhlaba ukukhusela okusingqongileyo, kodwa siza kuzisa nezibonelelo zoqoqosho.

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 ♦ Utyando-mbumbulu

GIzichumisi ezi-organic badlale indima ebalulekileyo kwizicwangciso zonikezelo lwesichumiso kwicala lehlabathi. Isitshixo sokuphucula isivuno sesichumiso esifanelekileyo kukukhetha umatshini ofanelekileyo wokuchumisa isichumisi. I-Granulation yinkqubo yezinto ezenza amaqhekeza amancinci, inyusa iipropathi zeteknoloji, kuthintele ukubamba kunye nokunyusa iipropathi zokuhamba, yenza ukuba kwenzeke ukusetyenziswa kwemali encinci, iququzelele ukulayishwa, ukuthuthwa, njl njl. Zonke izinto ezinokwenziwa zinokwenziwa isichumiso somgquba ngomatshini wethu we-organic granulation. Izinga legranulation yezinto linokufikelela kwi-100%, kwaye umxholo wezinto eziphilayo unokuphakama ube kwi-100%.

Ukulima kakhulu, ubungakanani bamasuntswana obulungele ukusetyenziswa kwintengiso kubalulekile. Umatshini wethu unokuvelisa izichumisi ezinobungakanani obahlukeneyo, ezinje nge-0.5mm-1.3mm, 1.3mm-3mm, 2mm-5mm.Ukukhulisa isichumiso somgquba ibonelela ngezinye zezona ndlela zisebenzayo zokudibanisa izimbiwa ukwenza isichumisi sezinongo ezininzi, ukuvumela ukugcinwa kwesambuku kunye nokupakishwa, kunye nokubonelela ngokulula kokuphathwa kunye nokusetyenziswa. Izichumiso zegranular eziphilayo zikulungele ngakumbi ukuzisebenzisa, zikhululekile kwivumba elingathandekiyo, imbewu yokhula, kunye nezifo, kwaye ukwenziwa kwazo kuyaziwa. Xa kuthelekiswa nomgquba wezilwanyana, ziqulathe amaxesha angama-4.3 ngaphezulu kwe-nitrogen (N), amaxesha amane phosphorus (P2O5) kunye nama-8.2 ephindaphindwe nge-potassium (K2O). Isichumiso segranular siphucula ukusebenza komhlaba ngokwandisa amanqanaba ehumus, uninzi lweempawu zokuvelisa umhlaba ziyaphuculwa: ngokwasemzimbeni, ngemichiza, iipropathi zomhlaba ze-microbiological kunye nokufuma, umoya, ulawulo lobushushu, kunye nezivuno zezityalo.

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♦ Yomile kwaye ipholile.

Ukomisa igubu kunye nomatshini wokupholisa zihlala zisetyenziswa kunye ngexesha lokuvelisa isichumiso somgquba. Umxholo wamanzi wesichumiso sezinto eziphilayo uyasuswa, iqondo lobushushu lwegranules liyancitshiswa, kufezekiswa injongo yokuzala nokucoca ulwelo. Amanyathelo amabini anokunciphisa ukulahleka kwezondlo kwiigranu kunye nokuphucula amandla omzimba.

♦ Isefu kunye nephakheji.

Inkqubo yovavanyo kukwahlula ezo zichumisi zingagalelwanga ukuba zigqityiwe Umatshini wokujonga igubu ojikelezayo. Izichumisi ezinganyangekiyo eziyimbumba zithunyelwa ukuba zilungiswe kwakhona, ngeli xesha isichumiso semvelo esifanelekileyo siya kufakwaumatshini wokupakisha ngokuzenzekelayo.

Isibonelelo sokutya okucola isichumiso

Ukuguqula inkunkuma yokutya ibe zizichumisi zendalo kunokudala izibonelelo zoqoqosho nezokusingqongileyo ezinokuphucula impilo yomhlaba kunye nokunceda ukunciphisa ukhukuliseko lomhlaba kunye nokuphucula umgangatho wamanzi. Irhasi yendalo enokuhlaziywa kunye nee-biofuels zinokuveliswa kwinkunkuma yokutya ehlaziyiweyo, enokunceda ukunciphisa igesi yendlu eluhlaza ukukhutshwa kunye nokuxhomekeka kwizibaso.

Isichumiso se-Organic sesona sondlo somhlaba. Ingumthombo olungileyo wesondlo sezityalo, kubandakanya i-nitrogen, i-phosphorus, i-potassium kunye ne-micronutrients, eziyimfuneko ekukhuleni kwezityalo. Ayinako ukunciphisa kuphela izitshabalalisi kunye nezifo zezityalo, kodwa ikwanciphisa isidingo semingxunya yokubulala ukungunda kunye neekhemikhali.Izichumiso ezikumgangatho ophezulu ezikumgangatho ophezulu izakusetyenziswa kuluhlu olubanzi lwamabala, kubandakanya ezolimo, iifama zalapha ekhaya kunye nemiboniso yeentyatyambo kwiindawo zikawonke-wonke, eziya kuthi zizise izibonelelo zoqoqosho ngqo kubavelisi.


Ixesha Post: Jun-18-2021