Uwulawula njani umgangatho womgquba

Ukulawulwa kwemeko ye imveliso yezichumiso eziphilayo, ekusebenzeni, kukunxibelelana kweempawu ezibonakalayo kunye zebhayoloji kwinkqubo yemfumba yomgquba. Kwelinye icala, imeko yolawulo iyanxibelelana kwaye ilungelelaniswe. Kwelinye icala, iifestile ezahlukeneyo zixutywe kunye, ngenxa yokwahluka kwendalo kunye nokuwohloka kwesantya okwahlukileyo.

● Ulawulo lokufuma
Ukufuma yimfuneko ebalulekileyo yokwenza umgquba. Kwinkqubo yokwenza umgquba, ukufuma okulinganayo kwezinto zokuqala zokwenza umgquba ngama-40% ukuya kuma-70%, ukuqinisekisa inkqubela egudileyo yomgquba. Owona mxholo womswakama ofanelekileyo ngama-60-70%. Ukufuma okuphezulu kakhulu okanye okuphantsi kakhulu kunokuchaphazela ukusebenza kwe-aerobiotic microbial ukwenzela ukuba ulawulo lwamanzi lwenziwe ngaphambi kokuba lubile. Xa umxholo womswakama ungaphantsi kwama-60%, ukufudumeza kuyacotha, amaqondo obushushu asezantsi kwaye isidanga sonakele singaphantsi. Ukufuma kungaphezulu kwe-70%, enefuthe kumoya ongenisa umoya, owenza ukubila kwe-anaerobic, ukufudumeza kancinci kunye nokubola okungalunganga.
Izifundo zibonise ukuba ukongeza amanzi kwimfumba yomgquba kunokukhawulezisa ukukhula komgquba kunye nozinzo kwelona binzana lisebenzayo. Umthamo wamanzi kufuneka uhlale i-50-60%. Ukufuma kufuneka kongezwe emva koko kugcinwe kwi-40% ukuya kwi-50%, ngelixa kungafuneki ukuba kuvuza. Ukufuma kufuneka kulawulwe ngaphantsi kwe 30% kwiimveliso. Ukuba ukufuma kuphezulu, kufanele ukuba kome kubushushu be-80 ℃.

● Ulawulo lobushushu
Ubushushu ziziphumo zomsebenzi wentsholongwane. Imisela ukusebenzisana kwezixhobo. Kumaqondo obushushu angama-30 ~ 50 ℃ kwinqanaba lokuqala lemfumba yomgquba, umsebenzi we-mesophile unokuvelisa ubushushu, ubangele ubushushu bomgquba. Ubushushu obulungileyo yayiyi-55 ~ 60 ℃. Iintsholongwane ze-Thermophilic zinokuthotywa inani elikhulu lezinto eziphilayo kwaye zikhawuleze zichithe iselulosi ngexesha elifutshane. Ubushushu obuphezulu yimeko eyimfuneko yokubulala inkunkuma enetyhefu, kubandakanya ii-pathogen, amaqanda esirhorho kunye nembewu yokhula, njl. Phantsi kweemeko eziqhelekileyo, kuthatha iiveki ezi-2 ~ 3 ukubulala inkunkuma eyingozi kubushushu be-55 ℃, 65 ℃ kwiveki e-1, okanye 70 ℃ iiyure ezininzi.

Umxholo wokufuma yinto echaphazela ubushushu bomgquba. Ukufuma okugqithileyo kunganciphisa ubushushu bomgquba. Ukulungisa ukufuma kukuqhuba ukufudumala kwinqanaba lomgquba kamva. Ubushushu bunokuncitshiswa ngokwandisa ukufuma, kuthintela ubushushu obuphezulu kwinkqubo yomgquba.
Ukwenza umgquba yenye into ebalulekileyo kulawulo lobushushu. Ukuvundisa kungalawula ubushushu bezinto kunye nokuphucula umphunga, kunyanzelisa umoya ngemfumba. Yindlela esebenzayo yokunciphisa ubushushu be-reactor ngokusebenzisaUmatshini wokujika umquba. Ibonakaliswa ngokusebenza ngokulula, ixabiso eliphantsi kunye nokusebenza okuphezulu. Ukulungelelanisa amaza olawulo lomgquba kumaqondo obushushu kunye nexesha lobushushu obuphezulu.

● Ulawulo lomyinge we-C / N
Xa umyinge we-C / N ufanelekile, umgquba unokuveliswa kakuhle. Ukuba umlinganiselo we-C / N uphezulu kakhulu, ngenxa yokunqongophala kwe-nitrogen kunye nokukhula okusingqongileyo, izinga lokuthotywa kwenkunkuma ephilayo iyacotha, ibangele ixesha elide lomgquba. Ukuba umyinge we-C / N uphantsi kakhulu, ikhabhoni inokusetyenziswa ngokupheleleyo, i-nitrogen egqithisileyo ilahleka kwiifom ze-ammonia. Ayichaphazeli okusingqongileyo kuphela kodwa iyacutha nokusebenza kwesichumiso se-nitrogen. Ii-Microbes zenza i-microbial protoplasm ngexesha lokugalela izinto eziphilayo. Kwisiseko sobunzima obomileyo, iprotoplasm ine-50% yekhabhoni, i-5% ye-nitrogen kunye ne-0.25% ye-phosphate. Ke ngoko, abaphandi bacebisa ukuba i-C / N efanelekileyo yomgquba yi-20-30%.
Umlinganiselo we-C / N womgquba womgquba unokuhlengahlengiswa ngokongeza izinto eziqulathe ikhabhon ephezulu okanye initrogen ephezulu. Ezinye izinto, ezinjengomququ, ukhula, umthi ofileyo kunye namagqabi, ziqulathe imicu, i-lignin kunye ne-pectin. Ngenxa yokuba i-C / N ephezulu, inokusetyenziswa njengezinto eziphezulu zekhabhoni. Ngenxa yomxholo wenitrogen ephezulu, umgquba wemfuyo ungasetyenziswa njengezongezo ze-nitrogen ephezulu. Umzekelo, umgquba wehagu uqukethe i-ammonium nitrogen efumanekayo kwiipesenti ezingama-80 zeentsholongwane, ukuze kukhuthazwe ngokufanelekileyo ukukhula kweentsholongwane kunye nokuzala nokukhawulezisa ukukhula komgquba.Uhlobo olutsha lwe-organic granulator lilungele eli nqanaba. Xa izinto zemvelaphi zingena kumatshini, izongezo zinokongezwa ngokweemfuno ezahlukeneyo.

● Ukungenisa umoya kunye nokuhambisa ioksijini
Yinto ebalulekileyo ukuba umgquba ube nomoya owaneleyo kunye neoksijini. Umsebenzi wawo ophambili kukubonelela ngeoksijini eyimfuneko ekukhuleni kweentsholongwane. Ukulawula ubushushu bokusabela ngokulawula umoya ongenisa umoya ukuze kulawulwe ubushushu obuphezulu bomgquba kunye nexesha leziganeko. Ngelixa kugcinwa iimeko ezinobushushu obulungileyo, ukunyusa umoya kungenza ukufuma. Ukungenisa umoya ngokufanelekileyo kunye neoksijini kunganciphisa ukulahleka kwe-nitrogen, ukuveliswa kwe-malodor kunye nokufuma, ekulula ukugcina imveliso eqhubekekayo.

Ukufuma komgquba kunefuthe kwi-aeration porosity nakwimisebenzi ye-microbial, eya kuthi ichaphazele ukusetyenziswa kweoksijini. Yinto ethathe isigqibo kwisichumisi se-aerobic. Kufuneka ilawule ukufuma kunye nokungena komoya ngesiseko seepropathi zezixhobo, ukufezekisa ukulungelelaniswa kwamanzi kunye neoksijini. Ngelixa kuqwalaselwa zombini, inokukhuthaza ukukhula kwe-microbial kunye nokuzala kunye nokwenza ngcono imeko yolawulo.
Uphononongo lubonakalisile ukuba ukusetyenziswa kweoksijini kunyuka ngokucacileyo ngaphantsi kwe-60 ℃, ukusetyenziswa okuphantsi ngaphezulu kwe-60 ℃ kwaye kufutshane ne-zero ngaphezulu kwe-70 ℃. Isixa somoya kunye neoksijini kufuneka silawulwe ngokungqinelana nobushushu obahlukileyo.

● ulawulo lwe-pH
Ixabiso le-pH lichaphazela yonke inkqubo yokwenza umgquba. Kwinqanaba lokuqala lokwenza umgquba, i-pH ichaphazela umsebenzi wentsholongwane. Umzekelo, i-pH = 6.0 yindawo yomda wehagu esele ikhulile kunye nothuli. Inqanda ikhabhon diokside kunye nokuvelisa ubushushu kwi-pH <6.0. Iyanda ngokukhawuleza kwi-carbon dioxide kunye nasekuveliseni ubushushu kwi-PH> 6. 0. Ngelixa ingena kwisigaba sobushushu obuphezulu, isenzo esidityanisiweyo se-pH ephezulu kunye nobushushu obuphezulu bukhokelela ku-volatilization ye-ammonia. Ii-Microbes zihla zibe yi-organic acid ene-composting, ekhokelela ekunciphiseni kwe-pH, ukuya kwi-5 okanye njalo. Kwaye emva koko izinto eziguquguqukayo ze-organic acid ziyehla ngenxa yokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu. Okwangoku, i-ammonia, ehlanjululwe yimvelo, yenza i-pH inyuke. Ekugqibeleni, izinza kwinqanaba eliphezulu. Kubushushu obuphezulu bomgquba, ixabiso le-pH kwi-7.5 ~ 8.5 linokufikelela kwizinga eliphezulu lomgquba. I-pH ephezulu kakhulu nayo inokubangela i-volatilization egqithisileyo ye-ammonia, yiyo loo nto inokunciphisa i-pH ngokudibanisa i-alum kunye ne-phosphoric acid.

 

Ngamafutshane, ukulawula umgangatho womgquba akukho lula. Kulula ngoku

imeko enye. Nangona kunjalo, izixhobo ziyasebenzisana ukufezekisa ukulungiselelwa ngokupheleleyo kwemeko yokugalela umgquba, yonke inkqubo kufuneka ibanjiswene. Xa imeko yolawulo ilungile, umgquba ungaqhubekeka kakuhle. Ke ngoko, ibeke isiseko esiluqilima sokuvelisa umgquba ophezulu.


Ixesha Post: Jun-18-2021